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Intermediate Instant Lesson™

Ebola

Pre-Reading Activities

A: Discussion
Work in groups of three or four. Discuss the questions below. Choose a secretary to write down your group's answers.

1. What are some of the diseases that are common in your country?
2. What are some of the ways that you can catch different diseases? e.g. sneezing,
3. How can you avoid getting certain diseases? e.g. Always wash your hands after going to the toilet and before eating.
4. What do you think are the three most dangerous diseases in your country? (i.e. that people die from)
5. What is your government doing to stop people from getting these diseases?

 

B: Vocabulary
Here are some words from today's article. Work with a partner. What do you think today's article will be about? (You can use your dictionary.)

virus, outbreak, infect, burial rituals, corpses, deadly


Reading Activities

A: Headlines
Read the first paragraph of today's article and fill the gaps in the headline.

_________African nations should be prepared for _________ - WHO expert

GENEVA, June 27 (Reuters) - West African nations next to those hit by the Ebola epidemic - Mali, Ivory Coast, Senegal and Guinea Bissau - should prepare for the possible arrival of travellers carrying the deadly virus, the World Health Organization said on Friday.

The outbreak persists especially in the forests of Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia, and its spread is being fueled by unsafe burial practices that infect relatives touching bodies, the U.N. agency said. (Continued.../)

Article © 2014 Thomson Reuters Limited. Lesson © 2014 www.english-to-go.com

B: Vocabulary Hunt
Here are some meanings of words from today's article. Read the meaning of a word and then look through today's article to find the word that matches it.

1. Find a word that means...made something increase or grow.
2. Find a word that means...next to, neighboring, neighbors of.
3. Find a word that means...growth of something.
4. Find a word that means...people from different countries.
5. Find a word that means...to lose blood inside the body.
6. Find a word that means...the development of a disease, the time it takes for the disease to develop in a body.
7. Find a word that means...a treatment such as medicine that makes a disease go away.
8. Find a word that means...began, appeared.


West African nations neighbouring those hit by the Ebola epidemic - Mali, Ivory Coast, Senegal and Guinea Bissau - should prepare for the possible arrival of travellers carrying the deadly virus, the World Health Organization said on Friday.

The outbreak persists especially in forested areas of Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia, and its spread is being fueled by unsafe burial practices that infect relatives handling bodies, the U.N. agency said.

"We want other countries in West Africa to be ready - bordering countries, Ivory Coast, Mali, Senegal, Guinea Bissau - to prepare themselves in case people affected with the disease may be also travelling," WHO medical officer Dr. Pierre Formenty told a briefing in Geneva.

Despite efforts by national health authorities and international aid organisations to contain its spread, the WHO has recorded 635 infections, including 399 deaths, in Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia since the outbreak began in February.

Some of the sick have travelled to get medical treatment, spreading the disease to big cities such as the Guinea capital of Conakry and Liberian capital of Monrovia, Formenty said.
"Roads exist in all of West Africa. There are roads going to Bamako, going to Abidjan, going to Dakar," he said.
Ebola causes vomiting and diarrhoea, impairs kidney and liver function and may cause internal and external bleeding.
It kills up to 90 percent of those infected. It is spread by close contact with the blood, body fluids and tissues of infected people or high-risk animals such as monkeys. The incubation period is from 2 to 21 days and there is no cure or vaccine.
The epidemic is already the deadliest since Ebola first emerged in central Africa in 1976, and the number of infections continues to rise.
(Continued.../)

Article © 2014 Thomson Reuters Limited. Lesson © 2014 www.english-to-go.com

C: Comprehension
Use Part Two of today's article to find the answers to these questions.

1. Which organization says that health workers are not winning the battle against Ebola?
2. Why is it very difficult to fight Ebola?


(Continued.../) "In Sierra Leone, the staff are really working very hard to contain the outbreak, so in terms of statistics we are really behind ... You should understand that probably the scope of the outbreak in Sierra Leone is bigger than what we are reporting today," Formenty said.

The medical charity Medecins Sans Frontieres (MSF) said on Monday that the epidemic is out of control and requires massive resources from governments and aid agencies to halt its spread.

Health workers have been able to control outbreaks in some places but it was proving more difficult in some other sites, partly due to the difficulty of convincing families about the required changes in behaviour.

"We are not there yet, we shall continue our effort. Because for me the only way we will succeed is when the people will understand clearly how dangerous it is for their life to conduct unsafe burial (practices) during an outbreak of Ebola," he said. But he added: "This is not out of hand."...

WHO's Regional Director for Africa Luis Sambo on Thursday called for drastic action to halt what he said has turned into a cross-border crisis.

Article © 2014 Thomson Reuters Limited. Lesson © 2014 www.english-to-go.com

D: Table
Without looking back at the article, complete the table to give information about Ebola choosing the appropriate words or phrases. (Be careful as only some of the words or phrases are used.)

bacteria; by eating cow meat; viruses; by eating ape meat; illness;
smallpox; blood; by touching infected body fluids such as blood or saliva; causes lots of bleeding inside the body;
malaria; Ebola; causes death; causes people to stop eating; through the air; by drinking dirty water

Group Name:  
Example: Ebola
How people catch it:
Results:


E: Extra Reading
Here is some extra information about Ebola. Write 3 questions using the information and ask another student to answer them.

Factbox: Ebola

Mon, Jul 30 2012 (Reuters) - Here are some facts about Ebola and recent major outbreaks.

* Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) is a severe, usually fatal disease in humans and non-human primates (monkeys, gorillas, and chimpanzees) that has appeared sporadically since it was first identified in 1976. The Ebola virus is named after a river in the Democratic Republic of Congo in Africa, where it first surfaced.

* There are five known subtypes of the Ebola virus. Four of the five have caused disease in humans: Ebola-Zaire, Ebola-Sudan, Ebola-Ivory Coast and Ebola-Bundibugyo. The fifth, Ebola-Reston, has caused disease in non human primates.

* Ebola is often characterized by the sudden onset of fever, intense weakness, muscle pain, a headache and a sore throat. This is often followed by vomiting, diarrhea, a rash, impaired kidney and liver functioning and, in some cases, both internal and external bleeding. The fever has an incubation period of two to 21 days.
There is no specific treatment or vaccine available.

* The Ebola virus is transmitted by contact with the blood, secretions, organs or other bodily fluids of infected people. Health care workers have frequently been infected while treating Ebola patients.

Sources: Reuters/ U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/ World Health Organization.

Article © 2012 Thomson Reuters Limited. Lesson © 2014 www.english-to-go.com

 


Post-Reading Activities
You may do one or more of these.

A: Radio Advert
With a partner choose two diseases that are common in your country and make two radio advertisements that inform people of what they can do to make sure they do not get the diseases.
(For example, your advertisement might encourage people to wash their hands every time they use the toilet or it might tell them to boil their water before drinking it.) Your advertisement must not be any longer than 1 minute.
When you have finished your preparation, share your advertisement with another pair.


B: A Health Poster
Work alone or in pairs and choose one of the following topics to research:

Then make a poster to display the information you found.
1. Think about what you want to find out. Ask yourself questions such as "Who was Lister?" and "What was he famous for?"
2. Find the information and take notes. When you do this remember to write down where your information came from. This is very important.
3. Decide what information answers your questions and how you will organize your information on the poster. The poster should be big enough to be displayed on a wall.
4.Think about how you will display the information on the poster. Decide what the heading for your poster will be and what sort of pictures will be used to illustrate your information. (Remember that there should be more text than pictures.)
5. When you have finished, display your poster on a wall so that others in your class can find out about what you have learnt.

C: Language
Fill in the gaps in this letter using either the present perfect simple or present perfect continuous. Choose the one that you think is more suitable and use one of the following verbs:

finish, work, try (x2), die, ask, struggle, say

Dear Karim,

How are you? I _____________ for WHO for the past five months and will probably still be here for a few more weeks. We _____________  to stop an Ebola outbreak in Sierra Leone (and other West African countries).

Since February a total of 399 people  __________ so far. We ____________to stop the virus from spreading. MSF ____________ that the outbreak is out of control. We ____________ the villagers not to eat ape meat and also requested that they do not touch their dead relatives.

We ____________ to find out how the first outbreak started. I will be staying here until we ____________the  job. I will write again soon.

Dave

 


TEACHERS' NOTES AND ANSWER KEY

Pre-Reading Activities

A: Discussion - Notes
You could make a list or get the groups to make a list of new vocabulary that arises. After all the groups have discussed the questions, you could get a representative of each group to report back to the class.
Groups could be organized in one of two ways: 1) people from the same country form a group OR 2) people from different countries in each group with each student answering the questions for their country. The discussion will still work well if all your students are from the same country.
In a one-to-one situation, talk about the questions with the student. You could ask the student to think about the questions before the lesson and then give you the answers during the lesson.

B: Vocabulary - Notes
Encourage students to look up the definitions of the words in their dictionaries.  Once they have done this, you can do a quick session with them to check they have found the right meanings. (Use the list of definitions below for this.)

B: Vocabulary - Answers
virus - a tiny organism that can cause disease
outbreak - a sudden appearance of a disease
infect - a disease infects someone by getting into his/her body often through the air or through dirty water.
burial rituals - customs or ceremonies used when burying dead bodies
corpses - dead bodies
deadly - something will kill you

Reading Activities

A: Headline - Notes
You may like to extend this activity by asking students to write other appropriate headlines for the article. (This could also be done at the end of the reading activities.)

A: Headline - Answer
West African nations should be prepared for Ebola - WHO expert

B: Vocabulary Hunt - Answers
1. fueled, 2. bordering, 3. spread, 4. international, 5. internal bleeding, 6. incubation, 7. cure, 8. emerged.

C: Comprehension - Answers
1. Medecins Sans Frontieres (MSF), 2. Becuase people won't change their behavior and do not understand that they need to stop doing certain things.

D: Complete the Table - Answers
Group Name: viruses
Example: Ebola
How people catch it: by touching infected body fluids such as blood or saliva
Results: causes lots of bleeding inside the body; causes death

Post-Reading Activities

A: Radio Advert - Notes
It is important that ads are kept short and to the point. You could also have students tape their adverts using tape recorders.

B: Health Poster - Notes
You can decide how big the posters will be. The point is for students to present information to others in a poster form rather than as an essay.  Students need to be selective in what information they choose to present.  Pictures should only make up less than a quarter of the poster space. It  is importance that students do not copy information directly onto their posters but use their own words. It is also important that students state where  they got their information from. This activity can be extended by having  your students give a short talk about their research using their poster as an aid.
This activity could also be done in a one to one situation, particularly by younger students who are learning how to do research and / or students who are learning information gathering skills.

C: Language - Answers
Dear Karim
How are you? I've been working for WHO for the past five months and will probably still be here for a few more weeks. We've been trying to stop an Ebola outbreak in Sierra Leone (and other West African countries).
Since February a total of 399 people have died so far. We've been struggling to stop the virus from spreading.  MSF has said that the outbreak is out of control.  We've asked the villagers not to eat ape meat and also requested that they do not touch their dead relatives.
We've been trying to find out how the first outbreak started. I will be staying here until we've finished the  job. I will write again soon.
Dave

140627EBOLAdise

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