Answer these questions in pairs. (Do not use the Internet or any reference materials to answer them, just use your own knowledge.)
1. What percentage of adults in the world do you think use an illicit drug each year? (Make a guess.)
2. Name some illicit drugs.
3. How is the illicit drug heroin produced?
4. How big is the world market for this drug? (Make a guess.)
5. When parents take illicit drugs, how are their children affected?
6. What kinds of treatments are drug addicts usually given for their addiction? Does treatment differ in various parts of the world?
B: Asking And Answering Questions
Work in pairs. One of you is Student A, the other Student B. Ask your partner questions to find answers for the gaps in your text. Answer your partner's questions. Do not look at your partner's text while you are doing this.
Text For Student A:
Text For Student B:
A: Matching Information
Read today's article as quickly as you can (do not read every word) and match the descriptions to the people or organizations.
1. Sanga Amaj is...
2. Parwana is...
3. Abdul Basir is...
4. Fadilan Abdul Kayong...
i. ...one of the staff at the drug clinic.
ii. ...an expert on illicit drugs.
iii. ...a center for drug addiction.
iv. ...a child who was formerly addicted to opium.
By Dan Williams
B: Summarizing Information
Which of the following points are covered by today's article?
1. There are three clinics tending to Afghan women and child opiate addicts.
2. United States-led experts struggle at the centers with drugs relapse and a shortage of funds.
3. Experts do not know what the long-term effects of exposure to heroin smoke will be on child-addicts.
4. Treatment at the centers differs to that of western clinics.
5. Afghanistan is unique in having child exposure to heroin smoke.
6. Parents may be encouraged to introduce their children to opium partly because of the pressures that they are under.
C: Making Comparisons
Using today's article and your own knowledge, answer these questions:
1. How does treatment for addicts in Afghani clinics differ to that in Western clinics?
2. Why might the reasons for high addiction rates be different to the reasons for addiction in the West? What similarities, if any, are there?
D: Reading And Thinking
Read today's article more carefully and then answer these questions:
How successful is the treatment prescribed by clinics like the Sanga Amaj clinic?
What problems do clinics like this face?
You may do one or more of these.
A: Extra Reading
Read this article to extend your understanding of the drug problem in Afghanistan.
Find out about child drug addiction in other countries.
What drugs are children addicted to?
What are the main reasons for their addiction?
How is their addiction treated?
TEACHERS' NOTES AND ANSWER KEY
A: Discussion - Notes
Avoid giving any answers or opinions. Allow students to discuss the questions freely. The discussion can be allowed to range more widely or you can keep students to a time-limit. The questions are answered by today's articles.
A: Matching Information - Answers
1. iii, 2. iv, 3. i. 4. ii.
B: Summarizing Information - Answers
All of the points are covered in today's article.
C: Making Comparisons - Sample Answers
1. Addicts in Afghani clinics are not given methadone to help wean them off their addiction. The clinics do not use a 12-step program based on Judaeo-Christian principles. Instead, the rehabilitation uses principles outlined by the Koran. Imams assist with counseling patients and days at the centers begin at 4 am. Western clinics would not start so early in the morning and it is unlikely that ministers of religion would directly counsel all patients, at least not at state clinics.
2. Afghanis are often living in extremely difficult conditions: a tough rural life with jobs requiring long hours of work and high levels of poverty. This has led to people encouraging their children to use opium in order to cope with the tedium of what they are doing. Because Afghanistan produces the opium poppy, obviously opium is more accessible to people living there than it would be to people in the West. The main similarity could be that the drug is often taken to relieve boredom or unhappiness caused by difficult circumstances and this reason could be shared by addicts in both Afghanistan and the West.
D: Reading And Thinking - Sample Answers
1. The writer of the article says that the recovery offered by the clinic is in "modest measure." The article points out that little is known of the long-term effects of addiction on children like these ones. The article gives the example of Parwana, a 9-year-old, who no longer experiences the headache that she had before she was addicted. "Now I feel like I'm normal." Statistics suggest that the program is having perhaps a 75 per cent success rate with 25 percent of women returning (However, this figure may not be accurate as the women may become addicted after returning to their normal lives but not return to the clinic.)
The article suggests that treatment for child addicts could be more successful if they were able to stay in a program for 90 days (as recommended by the Colombo Plan) rather than for 45 days which is what is happening now.
Clinics like the one in today's article get little international support as the main focus on fighting the spread of illicit drugs is on fighting production, not on discouraging addiction within Afghanistan's population, or in helping addicts in rehabilitation. Attitudes towards addiction are also not helped by the harsh economic situation of the country or by people's dependence on opium in order to help them cope with tedious, difficult work.
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